Notebookcheck

Nokia XR20

Laptopspecificaties

Nokia XR20
Nokia XR20
Processor
Qualcomm Snapdragon 480 5G 8 x 1.8 - 2 GHz, Cortex-A76 / 55
Grafische kaart
Geheugen
6144 MB 
Beeldscherm
6.67 inch 20:9, 2400 x 1080 pixel 395 PPI, capacitive touchscreen, IPS, Gorilla Glass Victus, glimmend: ja, 60 Hz
Opslag
128 GB UFS 2.1 Flash, 128 GB 
, 115 GB beschikbaar
Verbindingen
1 USB 3.0, Audio Verbindingen: 3.5 mm audio jack, Card Reader: microSD slot (shared, up to 512 GB), 1 Vingerafdruklezer, NFC, Brightness Sensor, Sensoren: acceleration sensor, gyroscope, proximity sensor, compass, barometer
Netwerkmogelijkheden
802.11 a/b/g/n/ac (a/b/g/n = Wi-Fi 4/ac = Wi-Fi 5), Bluetooth 5.1, 2G (850/​900/​1800/​1900), 3G (B1/​B2/​B4/​B5/​B8), 4G (B1/​B2/​B3/​B4/​B5/​B7/​B8/​B12/​B20/​B28/​B32/​B38/​B39/​B40/​B41/​B42/​B43/​B66), 5G (n1/​n2/​n3/​n5/​n7/​n28/​n41/​n66/​n77/​n78), Dual SIM, LTE, 5G, GPS
Afmetingen
hoogte x breedte x diepte (in mm): 10.6 x 171.6 x 81.5
Batterij
4630 mAh Lithium-Polymer, 18-watt charging (USB), 15-watt charging (Qi)
Charging
wireless charging, fast charging / Quickcharge
Besturingssysteem
Android 11
Camera
Primary Camera: 48 MPix 48.0 MP f/​1.79, phase-comparison AF, dual-LED flash, videos @1080p/​60fps (camera 1); 13.0 MP, f/​2.4, wide-angle lens (camera 2)
Secondary Camera: 8 MPix f/​2.0, videos @1080p/​30fps
Bijkomende functionaliteiten
Luidsprekers: stereo speakers, Toetsenbord: virtual keyboard, 24 Maanden Garantie, FM radio, IP68-certified, MIL-STD-810H-certified; SAR: 1.133 W/​kg (head), 1.427 W/​kg (body), fanless, ruggedized, waterproof
Gewicht
248 g
Prijs
579 Euro

 

Pricecompare

Gemiddelde Score: 77.96% - goed
Gemiddelde van 21 score (van 31 beoordelingen)
prijs: 61%, prestatie: 49%, functionaliteiten: 62%, beeldscherm: 74% mobiliteit: 78%, afwerking: 80%, ergonomie: 84%, emissies: 95%

Testrapporten voor de Nokia XR20

81.1% Nokia XR20 smartphone review: Waterbestendige telefoon met elegante behuizing | Notebookcheck
Met de Nokia XR20 willen de Finnen een robuuste telefoon op de markt brengen die zowel stevig is als er goed uitziet. Bovendien wil het bedrijf veel prestaties bieden en de telefoon toch betaalbaar houden. Heeft Nokia te veel hooi op zijn vork genomen?
75% Nokia XR20 Review - De perfecte telefoon voor buiten
Bron: XGN Nederlands
Al met al is de Nokia XR20 een leuke opvolger van de oudere Nokia telefoons. De telefoon voelt eigenlijk als een dure budgettelefoon, omdat de hardware niet van topkwaliteit is en zeker ook niet voelt als een premium toestel. Het is een apparaat voor onhandige mensen, of mensen die vaak buiten sporten. Ook omdat deze telefoon een hete kop koffie over zich heen kan krijgen zonder dat het een probleem is. De batterij gaat lang mee, en is verder ook snel op te laden. Uiteindelijk heeft Nokia wel weer bewezen waar haar telefoons voor staan: onverwoestbare hardware.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Kort, Datum: 12-12-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 75%
80% Nokia XR20: een échte Nokia-smartphone
Bron: Computer Totaal Nederlands
De Nokia XR20 is een hele stevige smartphone met prima specificaties, opgeruimde software en gegarandeerde updates tot de zomer van 2026. Echte minpunten heeft het toestel niet, al had hij wat sneller mogen zijn. Het voornaamste aandachtspunt is het lompe ontwerp, waardoor ik je aanraad om de Nokia XR20 even in een winkel uit te proberen voordat je hem eventueel koopt. Alternatieven voor de Nokia XR20 zijn de Samsung Galaxy Xcover 5, Motorola Defy en smartphones van CAT. Deze toestellen zijn even stevig, maar hebben minder goede specificaties. En alleen Samsung haalt het qua updatebeleid bij Nokia. De genoemde concurrenten zijn wel tientallen euro's goedkoper dan de Nokia XR20. Er is dus voor iedereen wat te kiezen, waarbij Nokia's model de beste keuze is in het hogere prijssegment. Het instapmodel van 499 euro is aan te raden, al denk ik dat veel geïnteresseerden beter tachtig euro meer kunnen uitgeven aan de uitvoering met meer werk- en opslaggeheugen.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 16-09-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 80%

Anderstalige testrapporten

Nokia XR20 Review – A Great Rugged Phone, But Not the Best Value
Bron: Cashify Engels EN→NL
Nokia has always been known for its long-lasting durable phones. Some of the company’s older phones have proven to be virtually indestructible. Nokia XR20 from brand licensee HMD Global aims to uphold that tradition, aiming at individuals who require a rugged partner for their active lifestyle while remaining subtle in its strength. This is a tough smartphone that is made to be as comfortable and appealing in the city as it is in the woods. This appealing rugged smartphone has a great display, strong battery life, and long-term software support, making it suitable for practically any environment. The CPU performance isn’t great, and the cameras aren’t great either. Find out if the Nokia XR20 is the right phone for you in Cashify’s Nokia XR20 review.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 18-12-2021
80% Nokia XR20 review: A rugged handset but too many compromises
Bron: Expert Reviews Engels EN→NL
A run-of-the-mill handset in almost every way, the Nokia XR20 won’t appeal if you aren’t already in the market for a tough-as-nails smartphone. For the same amount of money, you can do much better as far as specs are concerned, but of course you’ll miss out on the Nokia XR20’s near-indestructible qualities. Paying extra for the reinforced screen, hardy design and rubber bumpers is the kind of decision that comes down to how you use your smartphone. If you have an active lifestyle or a physical profession, then you’ll know more than most just how easy it is to damage your phone, and that’s where the Nokia XR20 really comes into its own. As a compromise, though, you’ll miss out on fast performance, a strong camera and a long-lasting battery, but that’s not to say any of these aspects aren’t competent enough. Over the next few years, you may find yourself more frustrated by the Nokia XR20’s speeds, but at least you won't have to worry about it getting damaged easily, and the 5G connectivity will help the Nokia XR20 remain relevant for years to come, too.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 02-12-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 80%
70% Nokia XR20 review: ruggedness that comes at a cost
Bron: 91mobiles Engels EN→NL
As I said earlier, the Nokia XR20 isn’t for everyone, given its specs and its pricing. At similar or even lower costs, you could get a phone that can deliver on all aspects of the core smartphone experience, and invest in a sturdy case that should protect it from shocks and drops. However, that would still leave out aspects like the resistance to extreme temperatures that the XR20 can offer. The device might not be the best, but offers reasonable performance along with a decent set of cameras and good battery life. If you’re someone who needs a no-frills smartphone and revels in the great outdoors, go on treks, enjoy adventure sports, or are involved in any activities which involve rough usage, the extreme ruggedness of the Nokia XR20 should come in handy.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Kort, Datum: 22-11-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 70%
80% Nokia XR20 review: A rugged handset with a few too many compromises
Bron: Expert Reviews Engels EN→NL
A run-of-the-mill handset in almost every way, the Nokia XR20 won’t appeal if you aren’t already in the market for a tough-as-nails smartphone. For the same amount of money, you can do much better as far as specs are concerned, but of course you’ll miss out on the Nokia XR20’s near-indestructible qualities. Paying extra for the reinforced screen, hardy design and rubber bumpers is the kind of decision that comes down to how you use your smartphone. If you have an active lifestyle or a physical profession, then you’ll know more than most just how easy it is to damage your phone, and that’s where the Nokia XR20 really comes into its own. As a compromise, though, you’ll miss out on fast performance, a strong camera and a long-lasting battery, but that’s not to say any of these aspects aren’t competent enough. Over the next few years, you may find yourself more frustrated by the Nokia XR20’s speeds, but at least you won't have to worry about it getting damaged easily, and the 5G connectivity will help the Nokia XR20 remain relevant for years to come, too.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Kort, Datum: 05-11-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 80%
90% Nokia XR20 review: A rugged phone with mainstream appeal
Bron: Android Central Engels EN→NL
The Nokia XR20 gives you mid-range specs — from its Snapdragon 480 5G processor and 6.67-inch, 60Hz display to its mid-tier 48MP camera — for a fairly high price. But as a rugged phone specifically, it offers a software experience leaps and bounds above most competing brands, plus a frame that can handle 5-foot drops or an hour underwater with no case. Add in Gorilla Glass Victus and one free screen repair from Nokia, and you get a phone that can handle virtually anything you throw at it.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 07-10-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 90%
80% Nokia XR20 review: A sharply dressed rugged phone with few flaws
Bron: Android Authority Engels EN→NL
HMD Global dialed in a good mixture of features and performance in the Nokia XR20, though it is not without its faults. The basic design is solid, with appealing looks and capable hardware. Its MIL-STD 810H and IP68 ratings ensure that the phone handles a fair amount of abuse in unforgiving environments — and it lived up to that in our testing. The large display is bright and contrasty with the benefit of Gorilla Glass Victus protecting it. Other essentials including excellent battery life, rapid charging speeds, solid 5G wireless support, and extra loud speakers round out the experience. We didn’t expect the Nokia XR20’s camera to deliver pure gold results, but we were hoping for sharper, more colorful images, especially considering there aren’t extra sensors for specialist workers. Perhaps most importantly, the entry-level processor, while enough to handle everyday tasks, might slow down with age and software updates over time.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Lang, Datum: 25-09-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 80%
80% Nokia XR20 review: A rugged handset with a few too many compromises
Bron: Expert Reviews Engels EN→NL
A run-of-the-mill handset in almost every way, the Nokia XR20 won’t appeal if you aren’t already in the market for a tough-as-nails smartphone. For the same amount of money, you can do much better as far as specs are concerned, but of course you’ll miss out on the Nokia XR20’s near-indestructible qualities. Paying extra for the reinforced screen, hardy design and rubber bumpers is the kind of decision that comes down to how you use your smartphone. As a compromise, though, you’ll miss out on fast performance, a strong camera and a long-lasting battery, but that’s not to say any of these aspects aren’t competent enough. Over the next few years, you may find yourself more frustrated by the Nokia XR20’s speeds, but at least you won't have to worry about it getting damaged easily, and the 5G connectivity will help the Nokia XR20 remain relevant for years to come, too.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 07-09-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 80%
Nokia XR20
Bron: PC Mag Engels EN→NL
If you're a contractor, a first responder, or someone who needs a rugged phone and/or FirstNet connectivity, the Nokia XR20 is worth a look. It can take a tumble, has a dual SIM slot and solid connectivity, and good battery life. While you may not be able to play some games or take flagship-quality photos, it's good enough for basic tasks and phone calls. For everyone else, our Editors' Choice winner, the $449 Google Pixel 5a With 5G, is a better choice. It performs like a champ, has excellent cameras, and will get software updates even faster than the Nokia XR20. Add a year of Google’s Preferred Care plan and a sturdy case, and you’ll be paying the same price as the XR20 for a much better phone.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 27-08-2021
80% Nokia XR20 review
Bron: Tech Advisor Engels EN→NL
Not that the company has hit a home run here. Performance is fairly mediocre, and we would have liked to see a little more oomph in the CPU department. Elsewhere, a slightly higher screen refresh rate would go a long way to making the XR20 feel a little more current, while the advances made by affordable ‘normal’ phones make us think there’s still room for improvement in the camera department. But if you’re in the market for a genuinely tough phone that won’t break the bank, and that can stand up to home life as well as extreme environments, this is just about as good as it gets right now.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Lang, Datum: 16-08-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 80%
Nokia XR20 Review, Pros and Cons
Bron: OI Spice Tech News Engels EN→NL
The Nokia XR20 display made of IPS LCD technology is far from the performance of an AMOLED screen. You will certainly get the latest built-in features, but there are many smartphones that offer better and stronger specs. On this budget, a 48 MP camera is just a trivial addition, though it doesn’t give you much satisfactory image quality. Also, a decent battery with a relatively less standard fast charger doesn’t make the phone a good buy. Overall this is a durable smartphone for the user who use to go in harsh conditions. Of course, a comparison would be a better decision. If you are looking for a better alternative option, you can check out the Ulefone Armor 11T smartphone in an almost similar price range with better specs.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 11-08-2021
80% Nokia XR20 Review
Bron: Trusted Reviews Engels EN→NL
The Nokia XR20 is a tough phone, one made to appear not to throw too much away in favour of ruggedisation. You still get 5G. You still get stereo speakers. And while the XR20 may not be a work of art, it is not comically larger than some of the other 6.67-inch screen Androids.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Zeer lang, Datum: 05-08-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 80%
Nokia XR20 review: survival of the fittest
Bron: Technobig Engels EN→NL
The smartphone has a specific essence – it’s like a Jeep Wrangler, which is sold for a comfortable Lexus RX 300 crossover price. Each car has its own buyer, so is the Nokia XR20. This is not a mass device, a kind of smartphone. On the one hand, we get an increased level of protection, but on the other hand, you can buy last year’s flagship or an advanced middle school student for the same money. As a result, the choice remains with the buyer, but it is good that in our time, when the universe of the same type of devices has developed around, such original smartphones appear.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Lang, Datum: 03-08-2021
Nokia XR20 Specs, Price, Reviews: Tough Like a Brick, But Is It Too Pricey?
Bron: iTech Post Engels EN→NL
The 5G modem covers a wide number of bands and offers faster than average speeds where 5G is available. XR20 owners will be getting faster download speeds a low latency. It does cost less than an iPhone with more sturdiness built-in, perfect for people who are looking for a phone that can take the rigorous wear and tear of an active life, but it isn't really anything special or new as a smartphone.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Zeer kort, Datum: 01-08-2021
Nokia XR20 initial review: Tough as old boots
Bron: Pocket Lint Engels EN→NL
The Nokia XR20 is an interesting phone and once in the hand, there's something about the rugged finish we really like. It has been designed to take a little abuse and that's likely to appeal to certain users who want protection but don't want a case on their phone. While we're still to fully assess the performance, there's this lingering feeling that many will look at the core hardware on offer and think that this phone is overpriced: indeed, there are plenty of alternatives at this price offering more power and that could pose a problem for Nokia. But we won't pass a definitive judgement until we've fully reviewed this quirky phone. Certainly for those who constantly smash up their phone, there's something here to be interested in.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 27-07-2021
100% Nokia XR20 5G rugged smartphone review
Bron: Techradar Engels EN→NL
Should we be surprised that Nokia has finally launched its first true rugged smartphone? Not really. Years after Samsung with its Galaxy Active range and only a few weeks after the relaunch of the Motorola Defy range, HMD Global, which now owns the Nokia brand, finally woke up to the potential of that small but thriving outdoor market. The end product is the XR20, a Qualcomm-powered, 5G-enabled, shockproof and water resistant smartphone that aspires to be more than just a ruggedized device.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 27-07-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 100%
Nokia XR20 – built to take it
Bron: Gadgetguy Engels EN→NL
It also meets MIL-STD-810H – something to look for if you want a ruggedised device. MIL-STD is just an acronym for US military standards for a device that meets some or all of the mechanical shock, vibration, temperature, low pressure (altitude), humidity, fungus, salt fog, and explosive atmosphere certifications. Nokia states that it meets two tests – 1.8M drop protection and IP68, 1.5M water submersion for up to 1 hour.
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Zeer kort, Datum: 27-07-2021
80% Outdoor-Handy Nokia XR20 im Alltags- und Härtetest
Bron: PCtipp.ch Duits DE→NL
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Lang, Datum: 14-09-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 80%
80% Starkes Outdoor-Smartphone mit Display- und Update-Garantie
Bron: Tech Stage Duits DE→NL
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 20-08-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 80%
Nokia XR20 im Test: Outdoor-Smartphone mit Ansprüchen
Bron: Computerbild Duits DE→NL
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 28-07-2021
Outdoor-Smartphone mit Android-Updates bis 2025
Bron: Computerbase Duits DE→NL
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Lang, Datum: 27-07-2021
75% Recensione Nokia XR20: il non-rugged più rugged di sempre
Bron: AndroidWorld.it Italiaans IT→NL
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 02-11-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 75% prijs: 55% functionaliteiten: 70% beeldscherm: 75% mobiliteit: 85% afwerking: 85% ergonomie: 85%
Recensione Nokia XR20: punta tutto sulla resistenza
Bron: Tutto Android Italiaans IT→NL
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 25-10-2021
65% Recenzja Nokia XR20 – zbyt droga, ale odporna na przeciwności losu
Bron: Tabletowo Turks PL→NL
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Zeer lang, Datum: 29-08-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 65%
Обзор смартфона Nokia XR20: неуязвимый
Bron: 3DNews.ru RU→NL
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Zeer lang, Datum: 11-08-2021
62% Обзор Nokia XR20: неубиваемый смартфон для всех
Bron: Hi-Tech Mail RU→NL
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 27-07-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 62% prestatie: 50% beeldscherm: 60% mobiliteit: 60% afwerking: 70%
80% Nokia XR20
Bron: Tek.no NO→NL
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 18-08-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 80%
67% Nokia XR20 [TEST]: Robust smartphone – håndværker i habit
Bron: Alt om Data DA→NL
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Kort, Datum: 02-11-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 67% prijs: 67% prestatie: 50%
80% Test: Tuffa Nokia XR20 tål både vatten och hårda tag
Bron: M3 PC för alla SV→NL
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 17-09-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 80%
72% Test: Nokia XR20 – Tålig men inte klumpig
Bron: Mobil.se SV→NL
Enkel testrapport, online beschikbaar, Gemiddeld, Datum: 06-08-2021
Beoordeling: Totale score: 72%

Commentaar

Qualcomm Adreno 619:

Geïntegreerde grafische kaart (in de Snapdragon 750G) gebaseerd op de Adreno 600 architectuur. De prestaties zijn veel beter dan de oude Adreno 612.

Alleen oudere games kunnen vloeiend draaien met deze grafische chips (als ze niet veeleisend zijn). Gedeeld geheugen grafische cores in deze categorie hebben het voordeel van minder warmte-ontwikkeling en langere batterijlooptijd. Voor kantoor, internet, beeldcorrectie- en videomonteringswerk zijn deze grafische chips nog steeds bruikbaar zonder enige beperkingen.


>> Meer informatie kan gevonden worden in ons Vergelijk van Mobiele Grafische Kaarten en de passende Benchmark Tabel.


SD 480:

Lagere mainstream octa-core met twee grote ARM Cortex-A76-kernen op maximaal 2 GHz en zes kleine ARM Cortex-A55 SoC-kernen geklokt op maximaal 1,8 GHz. Verder integreert en de Adreno 619 GPU, een LPDDR4x-2133 geheugencontroller, evenals een X51 5G-modem.


>> Meer informatie kan gevonden worden in ons Vergelijk van Mobiele Processors.


6.67": Er bestaan maar weinig smartphones met een groter scherm.

Grote schermformaten laten hogere resoluties toe. Details zoals letters zijn groter. Anderzijds is het energieverbruik lager bij kleine schermdiagonalen en de toestellen zijn kleiner, lichter en goedkoper.
>>Om de fijnheid van het scherm te vinden, kijk in onze DPI-lijst.


0.248 kg: Dit gewicht is typisch voor smartphones.


77.96%: Dit cijfer is niet echt overtuigend. Het moet in acht worden genomen dat er bijna geen laptops zijn die een score onder de 60% hebben. Dit notebook is beneden gemiddeld beoordeeld, en is niet aanbevolen te kopen.


>> De verdere informatie kan worden gevonden in onze hulp voor de aankoop van laptops.

 

Please share our article, every link counts!
Nokia G50
Adreno 619
Nokia X10
Adreno 619
Nokia X20
Adreno 619

Vergelijkbare notebooks van een andere fabrikant

Vivo Y53s
Adreno 619
Oppo A54 5G
Adreno 619
Oppo A74 5G
Adreno 619

Laptops van een andere fabrikant en met een andere CPU

Motorola Moto G71 5G
Adreno 619, unknown
Motorola Moto G51
Adreno 619, unknown
Fairphone 4
Adreno 619, Snapdragon SD 750G 5G
Samsung Galaxy F52 5G
Adreno 619, Snapdragon SD 750G 5G
OnePlus Nord CE 5G (Nord Core Edition)
Adreno 619, Snapdragon SD 750G 5G
TCL 20 Pro 5G
Adreno 619, Snapdragon SD 750G 5G
realme Q3
Adreno 619, Snapdragon SD 750G 5G
Samsung Galaxy A72 5G
Adreno 619, Snapdragon SD 750G 5G
Samsung Galaxy A52 5G
Adreno 619, Snapdragon SD 750G 5G

Laptops met dezelfde schermgrootte en gewicht

Nokia C30
GE8322 / IMG8322, SC9863A, 6.82", 0.237 kg
Nokia C20 Plus
GE8322 / IMG8322, SC9863A, 6.50", 0.2047 kg
Nokia C1 2nd Edition
Mali-400 MP2, unknown, 5.45", 0.154 kg
Nokia 110 4G
unknown, unknown, 1.80", 0.0845 kg
Nokia G20
PowerVR GE8320, Mediatek Helio G Helio G35, 6.50", 0.197 kg
Nokia 1.4
Adreno 308, Snapdragon 200 SD 215, 6.52", 0.178 kg
Nokia C20
GE8322 / IMG8322, SC9863A, 6.52", 0.191 kg
Nokia G10
PowerVR GE8320, Mediatek Helio G Helio G25, 6.50", 0.197 kg
Nokia C1 Plus
unknown, unknown, 5.45", 0.148 kg

Laptops van zelfde fabrikant

Nokia T20
Mali-G52 MP2, T610, 10.40", 0.47 kg
Prijsvergelijking
> Overzichten en testrapporten over laptops en mobieltjes > Bibliotheek > Nokia XR20
Stefan Hinum (Update: 2021-09- 4)